(In the text footnotes are in bold)
The next day, Tuesday after Palm Sunday, 27th day of March, in the room near the Great Hall of the Castle of Rouen. The Promoter opened the case. Present: The Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaitre, assisted by 38 Assessors.
He then showed the text of the accusation drawn up by him against Jeanne, in the which are found stated the Articles just spoken of, and of which the tenor shall be written below.
This done, We, the Judges, did request the Lords and Masters here present to deliberate and to give Us their opinion.
This deliberation (given only in the Minutes) took place in presence of Jeanne, as follows :
And first, Maître Nicolas de Venderès said: that Jeanne should in the first place be compelled to swear what the Promoter had rightly demanded; that should Jeanne refuse to swear, she be accounted contumacious and excommunicate, and be proceeded against according to law.
Maître Jean Pinchon: That the Articles should first be read to her.
Maître Jean Basset: That the Articles should be read to her before she be excommunicated.
Maître Jean Guerin: Agrees with preceding.
Maître Jean Delafontaine: Of the same opinion as M. Venderès.
Maître Geoffrey de Crotay: That she should be given at least three days before being declared excommunicate and convicted ; in civil matters there is always a three days’ delay for taking the oath.
Maître Jean Ledoux: Agrees with preceding.
Maître Gilles Deschamps: That the Articles should be read to her, and that a day should be assigned for her to answer.
Maître Robert Barbier: Agrees with preceding.
The Lord Abbot of Fecamp: She is bound to speak the truth on what touches the Case; that, if she has not already been summoned to that effect, she be so summoned with the due legal interval.
Maître Jean de Chatillon: She is bound to speak the truth, her own affairs being in question.
Maître Erard Ermengard: Agrees with the Abbot of Fecamp.
Maître Guillaume Lebouchier: Agrees with the preceding.
The Lord Prior of Longueville: For those things to which she does not know how to answer, it seems to be exacting too much to wish her to reply by “I believe’, or ” I do not believe.”
Maître Jean Beaupère: To questions of fact on which she has certain knowledge she should reply at once; to others, on which she has not certain knowledge or which relate to law, delay should be granted if she asks for it.
Maître Jacques de Touraine: Agrees with the preceding.
Maître Nicolas Midi: The same, with this addition: That the Jurists should be consulted in order to decide if she should be constrained to swear from the present time.
Maître Maurice Duguesnay: The same as the Abbot of Fecamp.
Maître Jean de Nibat: As to the Articles he would refer to the Jurists; as to the oath, she is bound to swear regarding such things as touch on the Trial or the Faith; if on other subjects she should ask delay, let it be granted to her.
Maître Jean Leftvre: Refers to the Jurists.
Maître Pierre Maurice: She should answer to what she knows.
Maître Gerard: She is bound to reply on oath.
Maître Jacques Guesdon: Agrees with preceding.
Maître Thomas de Courcelles: She should answer; each Article should be read to her, and she should answer them in order. As to delay, it should be granted to her on such points of the subject as she should request it.
Maître André Marguerie: She ought to swear on what touches the Case: as to doubtful points she should be allowed delay.
Maître Dennis Gastinel: She ought to swear; the Promoter is right to demand her oath; as to what action should be taken in case she should refuse, it would be necessary for him to consult his books.
Maître Aubert Morel, and Maitre Jean Duchemin: She ought to swear.
The opinion of the others is lacking.
Then We, the Judges, considering the request of the Promoter, by the advice of each of the Assessors, gave order, and do give order, that the Articles just produced by the Promoter shall at once be read and shown in French to the said Jeanne, who, on each of them, shall answer according to knowledge; and if there are any points on which she asks delay, delay of right shall be granted to her.
Then the Promoter did abjure all calumny that is to say, he affirmed upon oath, that he was not led to bring these Articles against the said Jeanne by favor, rancor, hate or fear, but was solely animated by zeal for the Faith.
These preliminaries being completed, We, the Bishop did address to Jeanne a Canonical Admonition. We told her that all the Assessors were ecclesiastical persons of consummate knowledge, experts in law, human and divine, who desired and intended to proceed against her, as they had already done up to this time, with kindness and piety, and that, far from seeking vengeance or punishment, they desired, on the contrary, only her instruction and return into the way of truth and salvation. “But because you are neither well enough taught nor instructed in these difficult matters to know, by yourself, what you should do or say, We offer you to choose for counsel such of the Assessors as you shall be pleased to point Out; if you do not of yourself know how to make this choice, We offer to do it for you, and to point Out to you some who will counsel you on what you have to answer or do, on the condition always, that in matters of pure faith you will answer yourself, and charging you to swear to speak the truth on those things which are personal to yourself.”
To Our exhortation, Jeanne replied in these terms:
“First, as to that on which you admonish me for my good and for our Faith, I thank you and all the company also; as to the counsel which you offer me, also I thank you; but I have no intention of desisting from the counsel of Our Lord. As to the oath that you wish me to make, I am ready to speak the truth on all that touches the Case.”
And thus did she swear, her hands on the Holy Gospels.
After this, by Our order were read the Articles contained in the document which the Promoter had just deposited. Each of those Articles was read to Jeanne in the French language by Thomas de Courcelles; and she was called upon to reply in succession to each of these Articles : which she did. The completion of this formality had filled up the end of the Sitting for this day, and all the Sitting of the next day.
The Registrars appear to have had their difficulties from the very beginning. The notes taken by them at the morning sittings were read over in the presence of some of the Assessors at the Bishop’s lodgings in the afternoon, and compared with those made by the concealed English clerks. Differences of opinion
arose very often; but the officials refused to allow their own notes to be overridden, and, whenever any disputed point was referred to the Accused, their version was always found to be correct. These notes were finally drawn up by Manchon in a complete form, and upon them is based the whole account of the Trial as it appears in the Latin translation, the subsequent work of Thomas de Courcelles.
THE SEVENTY ARTICLES
[The Seventy Articles, prepared by the Promoter, d’Estivet, which form the Accusation of the Trial in Ordinary, were read to Jeanne by Thomas de Courcelles, on Tuesday, March 27th. In her replies, here given, Jeanne refers constantly to previous answers. The dates of Examinations, in which these are said to occur, follow in notes.]
And first, according to Divine Law, as according to Canon and Civil Law, it is to you, the Bishop, as Judge Ordinary, and to you, the Deputy, as Inquisitor of the Faith, that it apparent to drive away, destroy, and cut out from the roots in your Diocese and in all the kingdom of France, heresies, witchcraft’s, superstitions, and other crimes of that nature; it is to you that it apparent to punish, to correct and to amend heretics and all those who publish, say, profess, or in any other manner act against our Catholic Faith: to wit, sorcerers, diviners, invokes of demons, those who think ill of the Faith, all criminals of this kind, their abettors and accomplices, apprehended in your Diocese or in your jurisdiction, not only for the misdeeds they may have committed there, but even for the part of their misdeeds that they may have committed elsewhere, saving, in this respect, the power and duty of the other Judges competent to pursue them in their respective dioceses, limits, and jurisdictions. And your power as to this exists against all lay persons, whatever be their estate, sex, quality, and pre-eminence: in regard to all you are competent Judges.
” What have you to say to this Article?”
“I believe surely that our Lord the Pope of Rome, the Bishops, and other Clergy, are established to guard the Christian Faith and punish those who are found wanting therein: but as for me, for my doings I submit myself only to the Heavenly Church – that is to say, to God, to the Virgin Mary, and to the Saints in Paradise. I firmly believe I have not wavered in the Christian Faith, nor would I waver.”
The Accused, not only this year, but from her infancy, and not only in your Diocese, Bishop, and your jurisdiction, Deputy, but also in many other places of this kingdom, had done, composed, contrived and ordained a number of sacrileges and superstitions : she made herself a diviner; she caused herself to be adored and venerated; she had invoked demons, and evil spirits; consulted them, associated with them, had made and had with them compacts, treaties, and conventions, had made use of them, had furnished to others, acting in the same manner, aid, succor, and favor, and had, in much, led them on to act like herself; she had said, affirmed, and maintained that to act thus, to use witchcraft, divination’s, superstitions, was not a sin, was not a forbidden thing, but, on the contrary, a thing lawful, to be praised, worthy of approval; also she had led into these errors and evil doings a very great number of persons of divers estates, of both sexes, and had imprinted on their hearts the most fatal errors. Jeanne had been taken and arrested within the limits of your diocese of Beauvais, in the very act (flagrante delicto) of perpetrating all these misdoings.
“What have you to say to this Article?”
“I deny ever having used witchcraft, superstitious works, or divination’s. As to allowing myself to be adored, if any kissed my hands and my garments, it was not my doing or by my wish; I sought to protect myself from it, and to prevent it as much as in me lay. And as for the rest of the Article, I deny it.”
The Accused had fallen into many diverse and detestable errors which reek of heresy. She had said, vociferated, uttered, published and inculcated within the hearts of the simple, false and lying propositions allied to heresy, even themselves heretical, contrary to our Catholic Faith and its principles, to Gospel rules, and to the Statutes established or approved by General Councils; propositions, contrary not only to the Divine Law but also to Canon and Civil Law; propositions scandalous, sacrilegious, contrary to good manners, offensive to Pious ears: she had furnished help, counsel and favor to the people who dogmatically, affirmed, or promulgated such propositions.
“What have you to say to this Article ?”
“I deny it, and on the contrary affirm that I have always upheld the Church so far as it lay in my power.”
But it is time to instruct you more fully and more directly, my Lords and Judges, on the offenses, excesses, crimes, and misdemeanors, committed by the Accused in the diocese of Beauvais and elsewhere, in many and divers places.
It is true that the Accused was born in the village of Grus [Greux], of Jacques d’Arc and Isabelle, his wife; that she lived until seventeen years old or thereabouts in the village of Domremy, on the Meuse, in the diocese of Toul, in the Bailly of Chaumont, in Bassigny, in the provost of Montclere and Andelot.
In her childhood, she was not instructed in the beliefs and principles of our Faith; but by certain old women she was initiated in the science of witchcraft, divination, superstitious doings, and magical arts. Many inhabitants of these villages have been known for all time as using these kinds of witchcraft: Jeanne
had herself said that she learned from several, notably from her godmother, many things touching her visions and the apparitions of fairies; through others also, she had been penetrated by the detestable and pernicious errors of these evil spirits – so much so, that, in these interrogations before you, she had confessed that even now she did not know if these fairies were evil spirits or not.
“For the first part it is true, in so far as concerns my father, my mother, and the place of my birth. As to the fairies, I do not know what they are. On what touches my teaching, I learnt to believe, and have been brought up well and duly to do what a good child ought to do. For what concerns my godmother, I refer to what I have said on another occasion. You ask me to say the Creed? Ask my confessor, to whom I said it.”
Near the village of Domremy there is a great tree, big and ancient; it is called “the Charmed Tree of the Fairy of Bourlement”: near by is a spring; round this tree and this spring live, it is said, evil spirits called fairies, with whom those who use witchcraft are accustomed to come and dance at night.
“For the tree and the spring, I refer to my previous answers. The rest, I deny.” (1)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 8th Private Examination, March 17th; and 9th Private Examination, March 17th.
Accustomed to frequent this tree and this spring, above all by night, sometimes also by day, but at the times when the Church celebrates the Divine Office, Jeanne, in order to find herself more alone, danced roundelays around this tree and this spring; from time to time she hung from its branches garlands of herds and flowers woven by her own hands, accompanying her dances with songs mingled with invocations, sorceress, and other witchcraft’s: the garlands thus left overnight on the following morning were not to be found.
“I refer for a part to my previous answers ; the rest I deny.” (2)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th.)
Jeanne was in the habit of carrying about with her a mandrake, hoping thereby to secure fortune and riches in this world, she, in fact, believed that the mandrake has the virtue of procuring fortune.
“What have you to say about the mandrake?”
“I deny it entirely. “(3)….(Cf. 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)
Towards her twentieth year, Jeanne, of her own wish, and without permission of her father and mother, went to Neufchateau, in Lorraine, and was in service for some time at the house of a woman, an innkeeper named La Rousse, where lived women of evil life, and where soldiers were accustomed to lodge in great numbers. During her stay in this inn, Jeanne sometimes stayed with these evil women, sometimes took the sheep into the fields, or led the horses to watering in the meadows and pastures: it was there that she learnt to ride on horseback and to use arms.
“I refer to what I said elsewhere. I deny the rest.”(4)….(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd, and 3rd Public Examination, February 24th.)
Whilst she was in service with these women, Jeanne indicted a young man before the Officials at Toul for breach of promise; many times she repaired to Toul for this end, and spent thus nearly all that she had. This young man refused to marry her, because he knew she had been connected with evil women. He died during the trial. Jeanne then, unable to remain longer, quitted the service of this woman.
“On the subject of this trial for marriage I have answered elsewhere and refer to my answer. I deny the rest.” (5)….(Cf. 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)
After having quitted the service of La Rousse, Jeanne pretended, and still did pretend, to have had continually during five years, visions and apparitions of Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret They revealed to her, she says, by order of God, that she should raise the siege of Orleans and crown Charles, whom she calls her King; and that afterwards she would drive out his enemies from the realm of France. In spite of her father and mother, she left home, of her own motion, of her sole inspiration, and went to Robert de Baudricourt, captain of Vaucouleurs, to whom she communicated, in virtue of the order of Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret, the visions and revelations that God had made to her, asking of the said Robert to find her the means to accomplish what had been revealed to her. Twice repulsed by Robert, she returned twice to her parents. Returning a third time to the attempt, on a pretended order sent to her by revelation, she was then admitted and received by the said Robert.
” I refer to what I said before.” (6)….(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 3rd Public Examination February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 3rd Private Examination, March 12th.)
Having become familiar with the said Robert, Jeanne boasted that, after having done and accomplished all that had been commanded her of God, she would have three sons, of whom the first should be Pope, the second Emperor, and the third King. Robert de Baudricourt, hearing this, said to her, “Would I could be father to one myself, if they are to be such great people! my own value would thereby be the greater!” “Nay, nay, gentle Robert,” replied Jeanne, “it is not time; the Holy Spirit will accomplish it.” (7)….(This answer is given in French In the text.)
This is the tale which the said Robert had in many places often affirmed, told and published, and this in presence of prelates, lords, and high personages.
“I refer to what I have already said.(8)….(No previous answer is recorded.) I never boasted that I should have threechildren.”(9)….(Cf. 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)
In order the more openly and better to attain her end, Jeanne asked of Robert de Baudricourt to have made for her a man’s dress and armor appropriate. This captain, with great repugnance, ended by acquiescing in her request. These garments and armor made and furnished, Jeanne, rejecting and abandoning women’s clothing, her hair cut en-round like a young coxcomb, took shirt, breeches, doublet, with hose joined together and fastened to the said doublet by twenty points, long leggings laced on the outside, a short mantle [surcoat] to the knees, or thereabouts, close-cut cap, tight-fitting boots or buskins, long spurs, sword, dagger, breastplate, lance and other arms in fashion of a man of war, affirming that in this she was executing the order of God, as had been prescribed to her by revelation.
“What have you to say on this Article?”
“I refer to what I said before.”
“Did you then take this costume, these arms, and all this warlike apparel by the order of God?”
“On this also I refer to what I said before.” (10)….(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 3rd Private Examination, March 12th; and 8th Private Examination, March 17th.)
Jeanne attributes to God, His Angels and His Saints, orders which are against the modesty of the sex, and which are prohibited by the Divine Law, things abominable to God and man, interdicted on pain of anathema by ecclesiastical censure, such as dressing herself in the garments of a man, short, tight, dissolute, those underneath as well as above. It is in virtue of these pretended orders that she had attired herself in sumptuous and stately raiment, cloth-of-gold and furs; and not only did she wear short tunics, but she dressed herself in tabards, and garments open at both sides; and it is notorious that she was taken prisoner in a loose cloak of cloth-of-gold. She was always seen with a cap on her head, her hair cut short and a-round in the style of a man. In one word, putting aside the modesty of her sex, she acted not only against all feminine decency, but even against the reserve which men of good morals, wearing ornaments and garments which only profligate men are accustomed to use, and going so far as to carry arms of offense. To attribute all this to the order of God, to the order which had been transmitted to her by the Angels and even by Virgin Saints, is to blaspheme God and His Saints, to destroy the Divine Law and violate the Canonical Rules; it is to libel the sex and its virtue, to overturn all decency, to justify all examples of dissolute living, and to drive others thereto.
“I have not blasphemed God nor His Saints.”(11)….(The two following questions and answers appear in the Minute only.) “But, Jeanne, the Holy Canons and Holy Writ declare that women who take men’s dress or men who take women’s dress, do a thing abominable to God. How then can you say that you took this dress at God’s command?”
“You have been answered. If you wish that I should answer you further, grant me delay, and I will answer you.”
“Will you not take the dress of a woman to receive your Savior on Easter Day?”
“Neither for that nor for anything else will I yet put off my dress. I make no difference between man’s dress and woman’s dress for receiving my Savior. I ought not to be refused for this question of dress.” (12)….(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th, and 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)
Jeanne affirms that she has done right in attiring herself in garments worn only by dissolute men; she does profess that she will continue to retain them until she shall have received, by revelation, the express order of God: by this, she outrages God, the Angels, and the Saints.
“I do no wrong in serving God; tomorrow I will answer you.”
[One of the Assessors]: “Did you have revelation or order to wear a man’s dress?”
“I have already answered that elsewhere. I refer to my previous sayings. To-morrow I will answer. I know well who made me take a man’s dress; but I do not know how I can
reveal it.” (13)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 3rd Private Examination; March 12th; 8th Private Examination, March 17th. These questions and answers come after Article XIII. in the minute.)