Continuation of the March 28th

Reading of the Seventy Articles in Open Court.


Jeanne had not feared to proclaim that Saint Michael, the Archangel of God, did come to her with a great multitude of Angels in the house of a woman where she had stopped at Chinon; that he walked with her, holding her by the hand; that they together mounted the stairs of the Castle and together gained the Chamber of the King; that the Angel did reverence to the King, bowing before him, surrounded by this multitude of Angels, of which some had crowns on their heads and others had wings. To say such things of Archangels and the Holy Angels is presumption, audacity, lying, as in the holy books we do not read that they did a like reverence, a like demonstration, to any saint – not even to the Blessed Virgin, Mother of God. Jeanne had said that the Archangel Saint Gabriel had often come to her with the blessed – Michael, and sometimes even with thousands of Angels. She had also proclaimed that the same Angel, at her prayer, did bring in this company of Angels a crown, the most precious possible, to place upon the head of her King a crown which is today deposited in the treasury of the King; that the King would have been crowned at Reims with this crown, if he had deferred his consecration some days: it was only because of the extreme haste of his coronation that he received another. All these are lies imagined by Jeanne at the instigation of the devil, or suggested by demons in deceitful apparitions, to make sport of her curiosity, she who would search secrets beyond her capacity and condition.

“What have you to say on this Article ?”

“On the subject of the Angel who brought the sign I have already answered. As to what the Promoter suggests on the subject of the thousands of Angels, I do not recollect having said it – that is to say, the number; I did certainly say that I had never been wounded without receiving great comfort and help from God and from the Saints Catherine and Margaret. As to the crown, on this also I have replied. Of the conclusion which the Promoter makes against my deeds, I refer me to God, Our Lord; and where the crown was made and forged, I leave to Our Lord.”1


By all these inventions, Jeanne had so seduced Christian people that many have in her presence adored her as a Saint, and in her absence do adore her still, composing in her honor masses and collects; yet more, going so far as to call her the greatest of all the Saints after the Virgin Mary, raising statues and images to her in the Churches of the Saints, and bearing about them medals in lead or other metal representing her – exactly as the Church does to honor the memory and the recollection of the canonized Saints publicly proclaiming that she is sent from God, and more Angel than woman. Such things are pernicious to the Christian religion, scandalous, and prejudicial to the salvation of souls.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“As to the commencement of the Article, I have already answered; as to the conclusion, I refer to Our Lord.”2


In contempt of the orders of God and the Saints, Jeanne, in her presumption and pride, had gone so far as to take command over men; she had made herself commander-in-chief and had under her orders nearly 16,000 men, among whom were Princes, Barons, and a number of Gentlemen: she had made them all fight, being their principal captain.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“As to the fact of being commander-in-chief, I have answered before; if I have been commander-in-chief, it was to fight the English. As to the conclusion of the Article I refer me to God.”3


Jeanne did behave in an unseemly manner with men, refuses the society of women, wishes to live with men only, to be waited upon by them, even in her own room and in the most private details: a like thing had never been seen nor heard of a chaste and pious woman.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“It is true that my command was over men; but as to my quarters and lodging, most often I had a woman with me. And when I was engaged in the war I slept fully dressed and armed, not being able always to find a woman. As to the conclusion of the Article, I refer me to God.”


Jeanne had abused the revelations and prophecies that she said she had from God, to procure for herself lucre and temporal profit; by means of these pretended revelations, she had acquired great riches, a great show and great estate in officers, horses, and attire; she had obtained great revenues for her brothers and relations, imitating in this the false prophets, who, to acquire temporal gain or to obtain the favor of kings, were accustomed to pretend that they had had revelations from God on things which they knew would be to the taste of their princes; abusing the divine oracles, she had thus attributed her lies to God.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I have answered elsewhere. As to the gifts made to my brothers, that which the King gave to them was of his grace, without my asking. As to the charge made by the Promoter and the conclusion of the Article, I refer me to Our Lord.”4


Jeanne had many times proclaimed that she had two counselors whom she calls ‘Counselors of the Well,’ and who have come to her since she had been taken captive, as appears from the declaration made by Catherine de la Rochelle before the Officials in Paris.5This Catherine had said that Jeanne, if she be not well guarded, will get out of prison, by the help of the Devil.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I hold by what I have already said; and as to the ‘Counselors of the Well,’ I do not know what it means. I certainly believe that I overheard Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret there. The conclusion of the Article I deny.”

[And then she did swear by her oath6


The day of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin, Jeanne did assemble the whole army of Charles, to make an attack on the city of Paris; she did lead the army against the city, affirming that she would enter it on that day that she knew it by revelation: she directed all the arrangements possible for the entry. And, nevertheless, she is not afraid to deny it before us here in court. And at other places also, at La Charite-sur-Loire, for example, at Pont L’Eveque, at Compiegne, when she attacked the army of the Duke of Burgundy, she affirmed and foretold that which, according to her, would take place, saying that she knew it by revelation: now, not only did the things predicted by her not come to pass, but the very contrary happened. Before you she had denied having made these predictions, because they were not realized, as she had said; but many people worthy of trust report7to have heard her utter them. At the time of the assault on Paris, she said that thousands of angels were around her, ready to bear her to Paradise if she should be killed: now, when she was asked why, after the promises made to her, not only did she not enter Paris but that many of her men and she herself had been wounded in a terrible manner and some even killed, she answered “It was Jesus, who broke His word to me.”

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“As to the beginning, I have answered it already. If I think of more later, I will willingly answer then. I never said that Jesus had failed me.”(57)….(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 4th Private Examination, March 13th.)


Jeanne did cause to be painted a standard whereon are two Angels, one on each side of God holding the world in His hand, with the words “Jhesus Maria” and other designs. She said that she caused this standard to be done by the order of God, who had revealed it to her by the agency of His Angels and Saints. This standard she did place at Reims near the Altar, during the consecration of Charles, ishing, in her pride and vain glory, that it should be peculiarly honored. Also did she cause to be painted arms, in the which she placed two golden lilies on a field azure; between the lilies a sword argent, with a hilt and guard gilded, the point of the sword pointing upwards and surmounted with a crown, gilded. All this is display and vanity, it is not religion nor piety; to attribute such vanities to God and to the Angels, is to be wanting in respect to God and the Saints.

” What have you to say on this Article ?”

“I have already answered it; for the conclusions drawn by the Promoter, I refer to Our Lord.”8


At St. Denis in France Jeanne did offer and cause to be placed in the Church, in the most prominent place, the armor she wore when she was wounded while attacking the town of Paris; she desired that this armor should be honored as relics. In this same town,she did cause to be lighted candles, for the melted wax to fall on the heads of little children, saying that this would bring them happiness, and making by such witchcraft’s many divination.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“As to my armor, I have answered; as to the candles lighted and melted, I deny it.”9


In contempt of the laws and sanction of the Church, Jeanne had several times before this tribunal refused to speak the truth: by this, she did render suspect all she had said or done in matters of faith and revelation, because she dares not reveal them to ecclesiastical judges; she dreads the just punishment she had merited and of which she appears herself to be conscious, when, on this question, she did in court urge this proverb, that “for speaking the truth, one was often hanged.” Also she had often said: “You will not know all,” and again, “I would rather have my head cut off than tell you all.”

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I never sought delay, except to answer more surely on what was asked me. When I am doubtful if I ought to answer, I ask delay to know if I ought to speak. As to the counsel of my King, because it does not touch on this case, I would not reveal it. Of the sign given to the King, I have told it, because the clergy did constrain me to do so.”10


Admonished of having to submit all her words and actions to the Church Militant, after that the distinction between the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant had been shown to her, Jeanne declared that she submitted herself to the Church Triumphant and refused to submit to the Church Militant, confessing by this that she did not rightly understand the Article of the Faith ‘I believe in the Church, One, Holy, Catholic,’ and that she is in error on this point. She had said she would reveal them only to God, and that she referred her acts to God and to His Saints and not to the judgment of the Church.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I wish with all my power to give honor and reverence to the Church Militant. For referring my acts to the Church Militant, I must refer to Our Lord Who caused me to do them.”

“Will you refer to the Church Militant as to what you have done?”

“Send me the clerk on Saturday next, and I will answer.”11


Jeanne had labored to scandalize the people, to induce them to believe in her talk, taking to herself the authority of God and His Angels, presumptuously seeking to seduce men from ecclesiastical authority, as do the false prophets who establish sects of error and perdition and separate themselves from the unity of the Church; a thing pernicious in the Christian religion, which, if the Bishops did not provide against it might destroy ecclesiastical authority; on all sides, in fact, raising up men and women who, pretending to have revelations from God and the Angels, will sow untruth and error as had already happened to many since this woman had arisen and had begun to scandalize Christian people and to publish her knavery’s.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I will answer next Saturday.”


Jeanne is not afraid to lie in court, and to violate her own oath when on the subject of her revelations; she did affirm a number of contradictory things, and which imply contradiction among themselves: she did not fear to hurl malediction against a whole nation, the rulers of that nation and its greatest people; she did speak of them without respect, allowing herself a tone of mockery and derision such as no woman in a state of holiness would allow; which showed well that she is ruled and guided by evil spirits and not, as she had boasted, by God and the Angels. Christ said of false prophets,

“Ye shall know them by their fruits.”

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I refer to what I have said, and, for the conclusion, to God Our Lord.”12


Jeanne did pretend to know that she had obtained pardon of the sin committed when, in despair, driven by the evil spirits, she threw herself from the tower of the Castle at Beaurevoir: yet the Scriptures say that no one knew if he is worthy of love or hate, nor, in consequence, if he is purged of sin and justified.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I have answered you, and to that I refer. Of the charge and the conclusion, I refer me to Our Lord.”


Many times Jeanne had said that she asked of God to send her special revelations by the Angels and by the Saints Catherine and Margaret upon what she ought to do: for example, in the matter of learning if she ought to make known the truth in court on certain points and certain facts which are personal to herself. It is to tempt God, to ask Him that which ought not to be asked of Him, because there is no need, and man may himself suffice for it by his own research. Thus, by the leap from the tower of Beaurevoir she did seem manifestly to have tempted God.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I have answered it, and will not, without the leave of Our Lord, reveal what has been revealed to me. It is not without need that I beseech God. I wish He would send me more, so that it might be discerned that I am come from God and that it is He Who had sent me.”


Of many of the deeds and words that have just been noticed some are opposed to the Divine Law, to Gospel Law, to Canon Law, to Civil Law, and to the rules of General Councils; others are witchcraft’s, divination, or superstitions; others breathe heresy and errors in faith; others are attempts against peace and tend to the effusion of human blood; others constitute blasphemies against God and the Saints and are wounding to pious ears. In all this, the Accused, by her audacious temerity, at the instigation of the Devil, had offended God and sinned against Holy Church; she had been a cause of scandal; she is on all these points notoriously defamed: she should be punished and corrected by you.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I am a good Christian; for all with which you charge me I refer to Our Lord.”


All and each of these transgressions the Accused had committed, perpetrated, said, uttered, recited, dogmatized, promulgated, put in action, as much in your jurisdiction as elsewhere, in many and divers places of this realm, not once only but many times, in divers times, days and hours. She had fallen again and again into all these errors; she had furnished counsel, help, and favor to those who have committed them with her.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I deny it.”


Because a persistent clamor had struck your ears not once only, but many times; because public rumor and an information based on what had gone before had made you recognize that the Accused is vehemently suspect and defamed; you have decreed that there is reason to bring an action against her, and to proceed therein, by you or one of you, by causing the said woman to be cited, and by setting her to answer as had been done.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“This Article concerns the Judges.”


By all which precedes, the Accused is vehemently suspect, scandalized and as far as possible defamed by all honest and serious people. But by all that had gone before she is neither corrected nor amended; she had postponed and did still postpone; she had refused and did still refuse to correct or amend herself; she had continued and persevered, did continue and persevere, in her errors, although by you the Judges, and by a great number of notable clergy, and other honest persons, she had been charitably and otherwise duly and sufficiently warned, summoned and required.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“The misdeeds brought forward against me by the Promoter, I have not done. For the rest, I refer me to God. Of all the misdeeds brought forward against me, I do not think I have committed any against the Christian faith.”

“If you have done anything against the Christian faith, will you submit to the Church and to those to whom correction belongs?”

“On Saturday, after dinner, I will answer you.”


All and each of these propositions contained in these Articles are true, notorious and manifest; the public voice and rumor had occupied and did occupy itself there with; the Accused had recognized and acknowledged these things as true, many times and sufficiently, before witnesses proved and worthy of belief, in and out of court.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I deny all that I have not recognized and confessed.”


Having attained conviction of the truth of all or part of the preceding Articles in a manner to justify the proposed end, which is that you may be enabled to pronounce in recognition of the cause, the Promoter did conclude that it will be ultimately judged by you, upon the whole, according to law and right.

And the said Promoter humbly implores your offices on all these things, as may be suitable.


  1. (Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March1st; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 4th Private Examination, March 13th.)
  2. (Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)
  3. (Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th.)
  4. (Cf. 1st Private Examination, March 10th.)
  5. (This is the only known reference to this declaration of Catherine de la Rochelle.)
  6. (Her usual oath was 'En nom De' [in the name of God] or 'Par mon martin' [by my baton] that she did not wish the Devil to deliver her from prison.)-(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)
  7. (These reports do not appear in the official documents.)
  8. (Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 28th; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 8th Private Examination March 17th; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)
  9. (Cf. 8th Private Examination, March 17th.)
  10. (Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)
  11. (Cf. 7th Private Examination, March 15th; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)
  12. (Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)