MARCH 28th READING OF THE SEVENTY ARTICLES

(In the text footnotes are in bold)

The next day, Wednesday, March 28th, in the same room, near the great Hall of the Castle of Rouen, before the Bishop and Brother Jean Lemaître, assisted by 35 Assessors.

Before them had been resumed the reading, begun the preceding day, of the Articles in the document produced by the Promoter. Their contents in French, being shown to Jeanne, Article by Article, she had been questioned on each of these Articles and had continued to reply, as here follow, after having anew sworn to speak truth on everything touching the Trial.(29)….(The following incident occurs in the Minute only) The Bishop, referring to the promise given on the previous day by Jeanne that she would answer on the subject of her dress, asks that, before proceeding with the reading, this answer may be given. To which Jeanne replies:

“The dress and the arms that I wear, I wear by the permission of God: I will not leave them off without the permission of God, even if it cost me my head: but, if it should so please Our Lord, I will leave them off: I will not take a woman’s dress if I have not permission from Our Savior.”

Jeanne is interrogated in prison on submission to the Church.

ARTICLE 31

From the time of her childhood and since, Jeanne had boasted, and every day still did boast, of having had, and of still having, numerous revelations and visions on the subject which, although she had been on this charitably admonished and legally required to swear, she had not made, nor wished to make, nor is now willing to make, any oath. She will not even make known the revelations made to her, by words nor by signs. This she had postponed, contested, refused, and did now also postpone, contest, and refuse. Many times had she said and affirmed in a formal manner, in Court and outside, that she will not make known these revelations and visions to you, her Judges, even if her head should be cut off, or her body dismembered. “They shall not drag it from my mouth,” she had said, “neither the sign that God revealed to me, nor the means whereby I knew that this sign came to me from God.”‘

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“As to revealing the sign and the other things, of which you speak, I may well have said I will not reveal them. I add, to what I before acknowledged that I should have said I would not reveal it without leave from Our Lord.”(30)….(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 7th Private Examination, March 15th; 8th Private Examination, March 37th.)

ARTICLE 32

By this refusal to make known these pretended revelations, you may and should presume strongly that the revelations and visions of Jeanne, if she had them always, came to her from lying and evil spirits rather than from good. And all the world may take it for certain, considering her cruelty, her pride, her dress, her actions, her lies, the contradictions here given in various Articles, that all these together constitute in this respect the most powerful of presumptions, both of law and right.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I did it by revelation, from Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret; and I will maintain it even unto death.’ If I put on my letters the names ‘Jhesus Maria,’ it was because I was advised to do so by certain persons of my party; sometimes I used these names, sometimes not.’ As to that passage in my answer of which you remind me, “All that I did, I did by the counsel of Our Lord,’ it should be completed thus: ‘All that I did well.’ ”

“Did you do well or ill to advance on La Charite?”

“If it were ill done, it will be confessed.”‘

“Did you do well to advance on Paris?”

“The gentlemen of France wished to advance on Paris. In doing this, it seems to me they did their duty in going against their enemies.”

ARTICLE 33

Jeanne had presumptuously and audaciously boasted, and did still boast, of knowing the future and of having foreseen the past, of knowing things that are in the present, but hidden or unknown ; all which, an attribute of the Deity, she claims for herself, a simple and ignorant creature.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“It is in Our Lord’s power to give revelations to whom He pleases; that which I said of the sword of Fierbois and of things to come, I knew by revelation.”(31)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 3rd Private Examination, March 12th; 5th Private Examination, March 14th.)

ARTICLE 34

Obstinate in her temerity and presumption, Jeanne had said, proclaimed, and published, that she recognized and discerned the voices of Archangels, Angels, and Saints; she had affirmed and did still affirm that she knew how to distinguish their Voices from human voices.

“What have you to say on this Article ?”

“I hold by what I have already said: of my pretended temerity, and, of that which has been concluded against me, I refer to Our Lord, my Judge.”(32)….(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 3rd; 7th Private Examination, March 15th.)

ARTICLE 35

Jeanne had boasted and affirmed that she did know how to discern those whom God loves and those whom He hates.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I hold by what I have already said elsewhere of the King and the Duke d’Orleans; of the others I know not; I know well that God, for their well-being,(33)…. (Minute reads : “pour l’aise de son corps.) (pro ediis corporum suorum), loves my King and the Duke d’Orleans better than me. I know it by revelation.”(34)….(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 3rd Public Examination Feb. 24th; 8th Private Examination, March 17th.)

ARTICLE 36

Jeanne had said, affirmed, and boasted, she did say, affirm, and every day boast, that she had known and could know exactly-and that not only herself, but also others through her means recognized and surely knew – the Voice which came to her, although from its nature a voice must be invisible to every human being.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I hold by what I have said elsewhere.”(35)….(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd.)

ARTICLE 37

Jeanne did confess to having frequently done the contrary to what had been commanded her by the revelations she did boast to have had from God; for example, when she retired from St. Denis, after the assault on Paris, and when she leaped from the top of the tower of Beaurevoir. By this, it is manifest, either that she had had no revelations from God, or that, if she had had them, she had despised them. And she it is, who, after this, did dare to affirm that she is in all things guided and governed by commands from on high and by revelation! Besides, she had said that, when she had had the order not to leap from the top of the tower, she was compelled to act contrary to this order, without being able to resist the constraint put upon her will; in the which she appears to think wrongly on the matters of Freewill and to fall into the error of those who believe that man is led by Fate or by some other irresistible power.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I hold by what I have said elsewhere. I state in addition that when I left St. Denis I had permission from my Voices.”

“In acting against your Voices, do you think you committed mortal sin? ”

“I have answered elsewhere to that; I refer to that answer. On the concluding part of this Article, I refer me to God.”(36)….(Cf. 2nd Public Examination, February 22nd; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 7th Private Examination, March 15th.)

ARTICLE 38

Jeanne, from the time of her child hood, had said, done, and committed a great number of crimes, sins and evil deeds-shameful, cruel, scandalous, dishonoring, unworthy of her sex; now she did say and affirm that all that she had done had been with the approbation and by the will of God; that she had done nothing and now did nothing which proceed not from God, by means of the revelations transmitted to her by the Holy Angels and the Holy Virgins, Catherine and Margaret.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I refer to what I have said elsewhere.” (37)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 7th Private Examination, March 15th.)

ARTICLE 39

Although the Just sin seven times a day, Jeanne had said and published that she had never committed, or, at least, that she did believe never to have committed, mortal sin. Nevertheless, as many Articles of the present accusation prove, she had indeed practiced, and on a vast scale, acts customary to nations who are at war, and others yet more grave.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I have answered it; I refer to what I have said elsewhere.”(38)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Private Examination, March 14th.)

ARTICLE 40

Forgetful of her salvation, impelled by the devil, she is not and had not been ashamed several times and in many and divers places to receive the Body of Christ, having upon her a man’s dress of unseemly form, a dress which the Jaws of God and man do forbid her to wear.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I have answered elsewhere.’ I rely upon what I have said before.’ I rely upon Our Lord.”(39)….(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)

ARTICLE 41

Jeanne, as one desperate, for hate and contempt of the English, and foreseeing the destruction of Compiegne, which she believed to be imminent, did attempt to kill herself by throwing herself down from the top of a tower; at the instigation of the devil, she took it into her head to commit this action; she applied herself to commit it; she did commit it in so far as she was able; on the other hand, in so throwing herself down, she was so well impelled and guided by a diabolic instinct that she had in view rather the safety of her body than that of her soul and of many others. Often indeed, had she boasted that she would kill herself rather than that she should be delivered to the English.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I rely upon what I have said before.”(40)….(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 5th Private Examination, March 28th.)

ARTICLE 42

Jeanne had said and published that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret and Saint Michael have bodies – that is to say, head, eyes, face, hair, etc.; that she had touched them with her hands; that she had kissed them and embraced them.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I have already answered it, and I rely upon what I have said.”(41)….(Cf. 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)

ARTICLE 43

Jeanne had said and published that the Saints, the Angels, and the Archangels speak the French language and not the English language, because the Saints, the Angels, and the Archangels are not on the side of the English, but of the French; she had outraged the Saints in glory, in implying to them a mortal hatred against a Catholic realm and a nation devoted, according to the will of the Church, to the veneration of all the Saints.

This Article having been set forth to Jeanne word for word, she only answered thus:

“I rely on Our Lord, and upon what I have replied before.”(42)….(Cf. 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)

ARTICLE 44

Jeanne had boasted and did yet boast, she had published and did publish, that Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret have promised to lead her to Paradise, and have assured her that she will obtain heavenly joy if she preserve her virginity; she affirms she is certain of this.

” What have you to say on this Article?”

“I rely on Our Lord and on what I answered elsewhere.”(43)….(Cf. 5th Private Examination, March 14th; 6th Private Examination, March 14th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st.)

ARTICLE 45

Although the judgments of God are impenetrable to us, nevertheless Jeanne had said, uttered, declared, and promulgated that she had known and can know those who are Saints, Archangels, Angels, or the elect of God; she knew how to discern them.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

” I refer to what I have already said.” (44)….(Cf. 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 5th Public Examination, March 1st; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)

ARTICLE 46

She had said that, before leaping from the tower of Beaurevoir, she did most lovingly entreat Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret for the people of Compiegne, saying to these Saints in a reproachful manner, “And how can God allow these people of Compiegne, who are so loyal, to die thus miserably?” In the which did appear her impatience and her irreverence towards God and the Saints.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I refer to what I have already said.”(45)….(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd.)

ARTICLE 47

Provoked with her wound, Jeanne, after the leap from the tower of Beaurevoir, seeing she had not attained her end, began to blaspheme God and the Saints, abjuring them with horrible taunts, insulting them terribly, to the great confusion of all those present. In the same way, when she was in the Castle of Rouen, many times, and on different days, did she blaspheme and deny God, the Blessed Virgin, and the Saints: in impatience and resentment at being brought for judgment before an ecclesiastical tribunal and forced to appear there.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I hold by Our Lord and by what I have already said.”(46)….(Cf. 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 6th Private Examination, March 14th.)

ARTICLE 48

Jeanne had said that she did and does still believe that the spirits which appear to her are Angels and Archangels and the Saints of God, as firmly as she believes in the Christian Faith, and in the Articles of that Faith, although she can report no sign which can be of a nature to prove that she had in reality had this communication; she had consulted neither Bishop, Priest, nor Prelate, nor any ecclesiastical person whatsoever, to know whether she ought to have faith in such spirits; yet more, she said that her Voices have forbidden her to reveal anything to any one whosoever it may be, save first to a captain of soldiers, then to Charles her King, and afterwards to other persons purely laic(old English: secular, of the laity). By this, she admits that her belief on this point is audacious, her faith erroneous, her revelations doubtful, having always kept them from the knowledge of the clergy and never having been willing to reveal them save to seculars.

“What have you to say to this Article?”

“I have answered it already. I refer to what is written. And as to the signs, if those who asked for them were not worthy, I could not help it. Many a time did I pray that it might please God to reveal it to some of this party. It is true, that to believe in my revelations I asked neither Bishop, Priest, nor any one else. I believe it was Saint Michael, from the good teaching he showed me.”

“Did Saint Michael say to you: ‘I am Saint Michael’?”

“I have answered before.”

As to the concluding part of the Article, she answered: “I refer me to Our Lord. . . As firmly as I believe Our Savior Jesus Christ suffered death to redeem us from the pains of hell, so firmly do I believe that it was Saint Michael and Saint Gabriel, Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret whom Our Savior sent to comfort and to counsel me.”(47)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 6th Public Examination, March 3rd; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th.)

ARTICLE 49

On the foundation of this fancy alone Jeanne had venerated spirits of this kind, kissing the ground on the which she said they had walked, bending the knee before them, embracing them, kissing them, paying all sorts of adoration to them, giving them thanks with clasped hands, taking the greatest familiarities with them; when she did not know if they were good or evil spirits, and when, by reason of all the circumstances revealed above, these spirits should have been rather considered by her as evil. This worship, this veneration, is idolatry: it is a compact with demons.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I have already answered ; for the conclusion, I refer me to Our Lord.”(48)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 1st Private Examination, March 10th; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 7th Private Examination, March 15th; 9th Private Examination, March 17th.)

ARTICLE 50

Every day and many times daily Jeanne did invoke these evil spirits and consult them on what she should do, notably on the manner in which she should answer in court. This seems to constitute, and did in effect constitute, an invocation of demons.

“What have you to say on this Article?”

“I have already answered it; I shall call them to my help as long as I live.”

“In what way shall you call them ?”

“I beseech Our Lord and Our Lady that they will send me counsel and comfort, and then They send it to me.”

“In what words do you beseech this?”

“I say ‘Most sweet Lord, in honor of Thy Holy Passion I beseech Thee, if You love me, that You wilt reveal to me how I should answer these Clergy. I know well, as regards this dress, the command by which I have taken it; but I do not know in what way I should leave it off: for this, may it please Thee to teach me.’ And soon they come to me. I often by my Voices have news of my Lord of Beauvais.”

The Bishop: “What do your Voices say of Us?”

“I will tell you apart. . . . To-day they came to me three times.”

“In your chamber?”

“I have answered you; I hear them well. Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret have told me what I should say on the subject of my dress.”(49)….(Cf. 3rd Public Examination, February 24th; 4th Public Examination, February 27th; 2nd Private Examination, March 12th; 4th Private Examination, March 13th; 5th Private Examination, March 14th.)