: (See Couter
: The straps on the back of a knight's shield.
: A technique of decoration common on silver and gold ware during the 14th and 15th century, used only rarely on armour during these periods. It was used with great effect alongside of etching
, a faster but cruder technique, during the 16th century. The most famous 14th century example is from on the brass trim on Churburg #13
, held in the Churburg castle, where phrases from the old testament are engraved into the border pieces. A very striking effect that has been very popular amongst modern re-enactors, although generally etching has been used for speed and efficiency.
Epaule de Mouton
: A steel defense for the complete arm, developed during the 15th and 16th centuries, used exclusively in jousts. The epaule
consisted of a single piece formed to cover the whole arm, made of cuirboille
: French for Sword
: The technique by which a form of wax or resist is placed onto the metal surfaced and scraped off in preparation for an acid bath (generally nitric acid or a mix of nitric, sulfuric acids and water). The resulting effect is to quickly remove metal and produce a striking visual effect. Used most often during the 16th and 17th centuries, there are only scattered references from the 14th and 15th centuries, although the technique appears in common use in jewelry and art metal. Most decoration during these periods was restricted to engraving
, or studding.
: (See Occularia
: Prior to the 13th century, little was done to defend the eyes. The skull, cheeks and back of the head was defended early on by mail
defenses, but it was not until the development of the heaulm
that the face was enclosed. After that, a narrow slit was generally provided to allow vision but to restrict weapons. On bascinet visors
, the area around the eyes was raised outward to make it very difficult for a weapon, or more importantly, an arrow to find purchase on the iron and penetrate.