Jeanne d'Arc & the 100 Years' War's historical background
The Hundred Years' War is the generic name given to a succession of Anglo-French conflicts. The troubles started when Edward III of England, grand-son of King of France Philippe IV le Bel, claimed the throne of France.
Edward III attacked France and defeated King Philippe VI de Valois in Crécy
(1346), and seized Calais
(1347). Philippe VI's successor, Jean II le Bon, was defeated and captured in Poitiers
(1356), and had to sign the treaty of Brétigny
(1360), by which a quarter of the Kingdom of France was annexed by England.
During the second half of XIVth century, King of France Charles V and Constable Du Guesclin expelled the English from most of France. In 1380, only Guyenne and Calais were still under English control.
Under the reign of Charles VI, the civil war between the House of Orléans and Duke of Burgundy, as well as Charles VI's insanity, helped the English to reconquer the lost territories.
After the battle of Agincourt
(1415), the treaty of Troyes
imposed the deposition of Charles VI and the regency of King of England (1420).
In 1429, Jeanne d'Arc seized Orléans
and crowned King Charles VII in Reims. She was caught in Compiègne and burnt at the stake in Rouen in 1431. However, the English were defeated in Formigny
(1450) and Castillon
(1453), and expelled from France.
They only kept Calais, which was given back to France in 1558.